in this sense is a professional in the field of law. Different countries' legal systems
use the term with somewhat differing meanings. The broad equivalent in many English law
-based jurisdictions could be a barrister
or a solicitor
. However, in Scottish
, South African
, South Asian and South American jurisdictions, advocate
indicates a lawyer of superior classification.
"Advocate" is in some languages an honorific for lawyers, such as "Adv. Sir Alberico Gentili". "Advocate" also has the everyday meaning of speaking out to help someone else, such as patient advocacy or the support expected from an elected politician; those senses are not covered by this article.
In England and Wales, advocates and proctors practised civil law in the Admiralty Courts and also, but in England only, in the ecclesiastical courts of the Church of England, in a similar way to barristers and attorneys in the common law and equity courts.
Advocates, who formed the senior branch of the legal profession in their field, were Doctors of Law of the Oxford, Cambridge, or Dublin and Fellows of the Society of Doctors' Commons.
Advocates lost their exclusive rights of audience in probate and divorce cases when the Crown took these matters over from the church in 1857, and in Admiralty cases in 1859. The Society of Advocates was never formally wound up, but its building was sold off in 1865 and the last advocate died in 1912.
Barristers were admitted to the Court of Arches of the Church of England in 1867. More recently, Solicitor Advocates have also been allowed to play this role.
This page was last edited on 9 May 2018, at 23:45.
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