The Jacobite rising of 1745 or 'The '45' (Scottish Gaelic: Bliadhna Theàrlaich , "The Year of Charles") is the name commonly used for the attempt by Charles Edward Stuart to regain the British throne for the House of Stuart. It took place during the War of the Austrian Succession with the bulk of the British Army in Europe and was the last in a series that began in 1689 and included revolts in 1708, 1715 and 1719.
Charles launched the rising on 19 August 1745 at Glenfinnan in the Scottish Highlands, capturing Edinburgh and winning the Battle of Prestonpans in September. The Jacobite army invaded England in early November, reaching Derby on 4 December where they were forced to retreat by lack of English support and vastly superior government forces. Despite victory at Falkirk Muir in January 1746, the Battle of Culloden in April ended the Rebellion and significant backing for the Stuart cause. Charles escaped to France but was unable to win support for another attempt and died in Rome in 1788.
In 1688, the Glorious Revolution replaced James II and VII with his Protestant daughter Mary II and her husband William III and II. Since neither Mary II or her sister Anne had surviving children, the 1701 Act of Settlement excluded Catholics from the English and Irish thrones and after the 1707 Act of Union that of Great Britain. When Anne became the last Stuart monarch in 1702, her heir was the distantly related but Protestant Sophia of Hanover, not her Catholic half-brother James Francis Edward. Sophia died two months before Anne in August 1714; her son became George I and the pro-Hanoverian Whigs controlled government for the next 30 years.
Jacobites remained a significant element in British and Irish politics but with very different and often competing goals. The Stuarts themselves were absolutist Unionists who wanted tolerance for Catholicism. English Jacobites were primarily Protestant Church of England Tories but unreliable since resentment at exclusion from government was a key aspect; failure to appreciate the post-1715 decline in English support was a major factor in the failure of the 1745 rising. Irish Jacobites expected the fulfilment of promises made by a reluctant James II for an autonomous, Catholic Ireland and the return of lands confiscated by Cromwell. Most Scottish Jacobites were Protestant Nationalists who opposed 'arbitrary' rule and wanted to dissolve the Union. These divisions became increasingly visible in 1745.
A successful rising required French backing but after the 1713 Treaty of Utrecht their priority was peace. The terms of the 1716 Anglo-French alliance forced the Stuarts to leave France and they were invited to settle in Rome by Pope Benedict XIV. Since religion was a key objection to the Stuarts, their status as Papal pensionaries combined with James' devout personal Catholicism to make them less attractive to potential supporters; the birth of James' sons Charles and Henry kept the cause alive but prospects of a Restoration seemed remote. This changed for a number of reasons.