Boroughs adjacent to Spelthorne are Runnymede and Elmbridge to the south in Surrey, Windsor and Maidenhead and Slough to the west in Berkshire, and Hillingdon, Hounslow and Richmond upon Thames to the north and east in Greater London.
Spelthorne appears in Domesday Book of 1086 as Spelethorne, in Middlesex. Spelthorne was a hundred, where local landowners met about once a month. The Spelthorne hundred also covered Poyle, historically a hamlet in the village of Stanwell, Hatton, East Bedfont, Feltham and Hanworth in the modern London Borough of Hounslow and Teddington (not in 1086 a manor) and Hampton (historically including Hampton Wick, Hampton Hill and Hampton Court) in the London Borough of Richmond upon Thames.
Hundreds dwindled in power as the medieval period drew to a close and were largely sources of revenue for certain overlords by the Tudor period, underlying freeholds and rights over their commons frequently held or divided among royalty or peers in a particular hundred. Ecclesiastical parishes assumed responsibilities for upkeep of public places and roads and apprehending wrongdoers, appointing churchwardens and constables to administer their areas. The poor law unions assumed responsibility for indoor and outdoor relief, later including workhouses:
In 1875 Sanitary Districts were created covering England and Wales.