Turkestan Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic

Flag of Turkestan ASSR
Location of Turkestan ASSR
Flag of Turkestan ASSR


The Turkestan Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic (initially, the Turkestan Socialist Federative Republic; 30 April 1918 – 27 October 1924) was an autonomous republic of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic located in Soviet Central Asia.

During the Russian Empire, the Turkestan ASSR's territory was governed as Turkestan Krai, the Emirate of Bukhara, and the Khanate of Khiva. From 1905, Pan-Turkist ideologues like Ismail Gasprinski aimed to suppress differences among the peoples who spoke Turkic languages, uniting them into one government. This idea was supported by Vladimir Lenin, and after the Russian Revolution of 1917, the Bolsheviks in Tashkent created the Turkestan ASSR. But in February 1918, the Islamic Council (Uzbek: Shuroi Islamia) and the Council of Intelligentsia (Uzb. Shuroi Ulammo) met in Kokand city and declared a rival Turkestan Autonomous Republic, battling Bolshevik forces until the 1920s.

Meanwhile, a power struggle among the Communists ensued between those favoring a Pan-Turkist government like Turar Ryskulov and Tursun Khojaev, and those in favor of dividing Soviet Turkestan into smaller ethnic or regional units, such as Fayzulla Khodzhayev and Akmal Ikramov. The latter group won, as national delimitation in Central Asia began in 1924. Upon dissolution, the Turkestan ASSR was split into Turkmen SSR (now Turkmenistan), Uzbek SSR (now Uzbekistan) with the Tajik ASSR (now Tajikistan), Kara-Kirghiz Autonomous Oblast (now Kyrgyzstan), and Karakalpak Autonomous Oblast (now Karakalpakstan).

Chairmen of the Council of People's Commissars ("Turksovnarkom")

1918–1924  Turkestan
1918–1941  Volga German
1919–1990  Bashkir
1920–1925  Kirghiz2
1920–1990  Tatar
1921–1990  Adjar
1921–1945  Crimean
1921–1991  Dagestan
1921–1924  Mountain

1921–1990  Nakhchivan
1922–1991  Yakut
1923–1990  Buryat1
1923–1940  Karelian
1924–1940  Moldavian
1924–1929  Tajik
1925–1992  Chuvash
1925–1936  Kazak2
1926–1936  Kirghiz

This page was last edited on 21 June 2018, at 14:59 (UTC).
Reference: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Turkestan_Autonomous_Soviet_Socialist_Republic under CC BY-SA license.

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